Five diseases that can occur after menopause
After menopause, the risks of developing diseases increase. Thus, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, obesity can become chronic.
Decreasing oestrogen levels are a determining factor for bone mineral loss. Thus, with the installation of menopause, the bones become more fragile and can fracture more easily, especially the bones of the wrist, the hip and the spine. Osteoporosis is often manifested by the deformation of the spine and compression of the vertebrae, causing the bent look.
The disease is more common in very weak, sedentary, smoker and alcohol-consuming women who lack calcium and / or vitamin D. Therefore, vitamins and minerals (calcium and vitamin D) are recommended to prevent this condition, in particular) as well as physical activities.
Another solution can be hormone replacement therapy; clinical trials have shown that oestrogen reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture in the hip by 40-60% and in the spine by more than 90%.
2. Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world and occupies one of the first places in the case of menopausal women.
These diseases occur as a result of the rise in blood cholesterol levels previously controlled by oestrogen.
And in the case of heart disease, an important role in their prevention is taken by physical activities, nutrition (which must be low-fat) and quitting smoking.
Hormone replacement therapy has been shown to be a significant factor that reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by half.
3. Urinary incontinence
Oestrogen maintains the health of tissues from the vagina and bladder. With the onset of menopause, these tissues begin to thin and atrophy, causing vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), as well as a higher sensitivity of the pelvic and bladder muscles.
All these aspects contribute to the occurrence of urinary incontinence, which is manifested by bladder hyperactivity and a frequent need for micturition.
Changing the appearance and consistency of tissues in this area favours the occurrence of urinary infections, which can also contribute to the development of urinary incontinence.
The condition can be prevented and treated primarily by carefully selecting the foods and liquids consumed: coffee, black tea, chocolate, citrus, alcohol or spicy food should be avoided. Weight loss can also help reduce the frequency of micturition.
As complementary treatment options, Kegel exercises (pelvic muscle consolidation), physiotherapy and oestrogen therapy are recommended, and as the ultimate solution – surgery for sacral nerve stimulation.
4. Emotional instability
The reduced flow of sex hormones during menopause influences the emotional state of a woman, who may be confronted with:
Extreme emotional states – aggression or high affection
Memory and concentration problems
After the age of 50, the body of women changes its shape, because fat begins to accumulate in the abdomen rather than on the hips and thighs. Therefore, menopausal women are prone to what doctors call abdominal obesity.